affirmation,n. A pledge equivalent to an oath but without reference to a supreme being or to

“swearing”; a solemn declaration made under penalty of perjury, but without an oath. Fed. R. Civ.

P. 43(d). • While an oath is “sworn to                                                                  ,” an affirmation is

merely “affirmed,” but either type of pledge may subject the person making it to the penalties for

perjury.  Cf.  OATH.  [Cases:  Witnesses    227.  C.J.S.  Witnesses  §  394.]  —  affirm,vb.  —

affirmatory,adj. [Blacks Law 8th]