affirmation,n. A pledge equivalent to an oath but without reference to a supreme being or to
“swearing”; a solemn declaration made under penalty of perjury, but without an oath. Fed. R. Civ.
P. 43(d). • While an oath is “sworn to ,” an affirmation is
merely “affirmed,” but either type of pledge may subject the person making it to the penalties for
perjury. Cf. OATH. [Cases: Witnesses 227. C.J.S. Witnesses § 394.] — affirm,vb. —
affirmatory,adj. [Blacks Law 8th]