affirmance,n.1. A ratification, reacceptance, or confirmation.

“A party who has the power of avoidance may lose it by action that manifests a willingness to

go on  with the contract. Such action is known as ‘affirmance’ and  has the effect of ratifying the

contract.  See  Restatement  of  Restitution  §  68.  The  rule  stated  in  this  Section  is  a  special

application of that stated in § 85, under which a promise to perform a voidable duty is binding. On

ratification,  the  affirming  party  is  bound  as  from  the  outset and  the  other  party  continues to  be

bound.” Restatement (Second) of Contracts § 380 cmt. a (1979).

2. The  formal approval by an appellate court  of a lower court’s  judgment,  order,  or decree.

[Cases:  Appeal  and  Error    1124–1145.  C.J.S.  Appeal  and  Error  §§  714,  745,  770,  814,  826,

864–868, 878–898.] 3. The manifestation of a choice by someone with the power of avoidance to

treat  a  voidable  or  unauthorized  transaction  as  valid  or  authorized.  4.  The  manifestation  of  a

choice,  by  one  on  whose  behalf  an  unauthorized  act  has  been  performed,  to  treat  the  act  as

authorized.Restatement (Second) of Agency § 83 (1958). — affirm,vb. [Blacks Law 8th]