advice   of   counsel.   1.   The   guidance   given   by   lawyers   to   their   clients.   2.   In   a

malicious-prosecution  lawsuit,  a  defense  requiring  both  a  complete  presentation  of  facts  by  the

defendant  to  his  or  her  attorney  and  honest  compliance  with  the  attorney’s  advice.  [Cases:

Malicious Prosecution    21, 25(2). C.J.S. Malicious Prosecution or Wrongful Litigation §§ 25, 42,

44–47.] 3. A defense in which a party seeks to avoid liability or punishment by claiming that he or

she  acted  reasonably  and  in  good  faith  on  the  attorney’s  advice.  •  Such  a  defense  usu.  requires

waiver  of  the  attorney–client  privilege,  and  the  attorney  cannot  have  knowingly  participated  in

implementing an illegal plan. [Cases: Criminal Law    37.20. C.J.S. Criminal Law §§ 56, 94–95.]

“Advice of counsel is a defense to a limited number of torts involving lack of probable cause,

bad faith, or malice as an element of the cause of action. By far the most frequent cause of action

against which the defense is asserted is malicious prosecution. The defense may also be asserted to

avoid liability for punitive damages on the reasoning that good faith reliance on advice of counsel

defeats  the  malice  necessary  to  an  award  of  punitive  damages.  In  civil  matters,  the  advice  is

typically obtained from the defendant’s own attorney; when the underlying proceeding is criminal,

the advice may be obtained from the district attorney’s office or similar source and may take the

form  of  action  by  that  officer  rather  than  advice  followed  by  action  by  the  defendant.”  4  Ann

Taylor Schwing, California Affirmative Defenses § 41:26, at 82 (2d ed. 1996). [Blacks Law 8th]