actio    finium    regundorum    (ak-shee-oh    fI-nee-<<schwa>>m    ri-g<<schwa>>n-dor-<<

schwa>>m).  [Latin  “action  for  regulation  of  boundaries”]  Roman  law.  An  action  among

neighboring proprietors to fix or to preserve property boundaries. See ADJUDICATIO.

actio furti (ak-shee-oh f<<schwa>>r-tI).Roman law. An action by which the owner of stolen

goods can, according to the circumstances, recover a multiple of their value from the thief by way

of penalty, without prejudice to a further action to recover the goods themselves or their value. See

furtum manifestum under FURTUM.

actio  honoraria  (ak-shee-oh  [h]on-<<schwa>>-rair-ee-<<schwa>>).  Pl.  actiones  honorariae.


actio       hypothecaria       (ak-shee-oh       hI-poth-<<schwa>>-kair-ee-<<schwa>>).       See


actio  in  factum  (ak-shee-oh  in  fak-t<<schwa>>m).Roman  law.  An  action  granted  by  the

praetor when no standard action was available. • The closest Anglo-American equivalent is action

on the case or trespass on the case. See trespass on the case under TRESPASS. Cf. actio directa;

actio utilis.

actio  injuriarum  (ak-shee-oh  in-juur-ee-ahr-<<schwa>>m).Roman  law.  An  action  that  lay

against anyone who  had attacked the body, reputation, or dignity  of any  person. — Also spelled

actio iniuriarum. Pl. actiones inju-riarum (ak-shee-oh-neez in-juur-ee-ahr-<<schwa>>m).

actio   in   personam   (ak-shee-oh   in   p<<schwa>>r-soh-n<<schwa>>m).   Pl.   actiones   in

personam.See action in personam under ACTION(4).

actio in rem (ak-shee-oh in rem). Pl. actiones in rem.See action in rem and real action under


actio institoria (ak-shee-oh in-sti-tor-ee-<<schwa>>). [Latin] Roman law. An action against a

principal by one who contracted with the principal’s business agent, limited to matters arising out

of the business. See INSTITOR.

actio  judicati  (ak-shee-oh  joo-di-kay-tI).Roman  law.  An  action  to  enforce  a  judgment  by

execution on the de-fendant’s property. Pl. actiones judicati.

actio legis (ak-shee-oh lee-jis). See LEGIS ACTIO.

actio legis Aquiliae (ak-shee-oh lee-jis <<schwa>>-kwil-ee-ee).Roman law. An action under

the Aquilian law; specif., an action to recover for loss caused by intentional or negligent damage A

to  another’s  property.  —  Also  termed  actio  damni  injuria;  actio  damni  injuria  dati.  See  LEX

actio locati (ak-shee-oh loh-kay-tI). [Latin “action for what has been hired out”] Roman law.

An action that a lessor (the locator) of a thing might have against the hirer, or an employer against

a contractor. — Also termed actio ex locato (ak-shee-oh eks loh-kay-toh). Cf. actio conducti.

actio  mandati  (ak-shee-oh  man-day-tI).1.Civil  law.  An  action  to  enforce  a  contract  for

gratuitous services or remuneration. 2.Hist. An action to enforce a contract for gratuitous services.

See MANDATUM. Pl. actiones mandati.

actio  mixta (ak-shee-oh  mik-st<<schwa>>).Roman law.  A  mixed action; an action in  which

two or more features are combined, as an action for damages and for a penalty, or an action in rem

and in personam. Pl. actiones mixta (ak-shee-oh-neez mik-st<<schwa>>).

actio   negatoria  (ak-shee-oh   neg-<<schwa>>-tor-ee-<<schwa>>).Roman  law.   An  action

brought  by  a  landowner  against  anyone  claiming  to  exercise  a  servitude  over  the  landowner’s

property. — Also termed actio negativa. Pl. actiones negatoriae.

actio      negotiorum      gestorum      (ak-shee-oh      n<<schwa>>-goh-shee-or-<<schwa>>m

jes-tor-<<schwa>>m).Roman  law.  An  action  against  a  gestor  for  the  mismanagement  of  the

principal’s property, or for any acquisitions made in the course of management. • The gestor could

bring  a  counteraction  to  recover  management-related  expenses  (actio  contraria  negotiorum

gestorum). Pl. actiones negotiorum gestorum.See NEGOTIORUM GESTOR.

actio non accrevit infra sex annos (ak-shee-oh non <<schwa>>-kree-vit in-fr<<schwa>> seks

an-ohs).  [Latin  “the  action  did  not  accrue  within  six  years”]  Hist.  A  plea  to  the  statute  of

limitations  by  which  the  defendant  asserts  that  the  plaintiff’s  cause  of  action  has  not  accrued

within the last six years. Pl. actiones non accreverant infra sex annos.

actio  non  ulterius  (ak-shee-oh  non  <<schwa>>l-teer-ee-<<schwa>>s).  [Latin  “an  action  no

further”] Hist. The  distinctive  clause  in a plea to abate further maintenance of the action.  • This

plea replaced the puis darrein continuance. Pl. actiones non ulterii.Cf. plea to further maintenance

to the action, plea puis darrein continuance under PLEA.

actio  Pauliana  (ak-shee-oh  paw-lee-ay-n<<schwa>>).  [Latin  “action  attributed  to  Paul”  or

“Paulian  action”]  An  action  to  rescind  a  transaction  (such  as  alienation  of  property)  that  an

insolvent  debtor  made  to  deceive  the  debtor’s  creditors.  •  This  action  was  brought  against  the

debtor or the third party who benefited from the transaction. Pl. actiones Paulianae.

“[A]ctio Pauliana, a name which has been shewn to be inserted by a glossator, after the first

publication of the Digest. It lay where the debtor had impoverished himself to the detriment of his

creditors, e.g. by alienations, by incurring liabilities or allowing rights to lapse, but not for failing

to  acquire  or  for  paying  just  debts  ….  It  lay  against  the  debtor,  who  might  have  since  acquired

property  ….  But its  chief  field  was  against acquirers privy  to  the  fraud,  or  even  innocent, if  the

acquisition  was  gratuitous.”  W.W.  Buckland,  A  Text-Book  of  Roman  Law  from  Augustus  to

Justinian 596 (Peter Stein ed., 3d ed. 1963).


actio perpetua (ak-shee-oh p<<schwa>>r-pech-oo-<<schwa>>).Roman law. An action that is

not required to be brought within a specified time. Pl. actiones perpetuae.Cf. actio temporalis.

actio  personalis  (ak-shee-oh  p<<schwa>>r-s<<schwa>>-nay-lis).Roman  law.  A  personal

action. Pl. actiones personales.

actio pigneratitia (ak-shee-oh pig-n<<schwa>>-r<<schwa>>-tish-ee-<<schwa>>).Roman law.

An action of pledge; an action founded on a contract of pledge. — Also spelled actio pigneraticia;

actio pignoratitia. — Also termed pigneratitia actio. Pl. actiones pignoratitiae.See PIGNUS.

actio poenalis (ak-shee-oh pi-nay-lis).Roman law. An action in which the plaintiff sued for a

penalty  rather  than  compensation.  Pl.  actiones  poenales  (ak-shee-oh-neez  pi-nay-leez).  Cf.  actio

rei persecutoria.

actio  popularis  (ak-shee-oh  pop-y<<schwa>>-lair-is). [Latin  “popular  action”]  Roman  law.

An  action  that  a  male  member  of  the  general  public  could  bring  in  the  interest  of  the  public

welfare. Pl. actiones populares (ak-shee-oh-neez pop-y<<schwa>>-lair-eez).

“Actiones populares. Actions which can be brought by ‘any one among the people.’ … They

are  of  praetorian  origin  and  serve  to  protect  public  interest  ….  They  are  penal,  and  in  case  of

condemnation  of  the  offender  the  plaintiff  receives  the  penalty  paid  ….  There  are  instances,

however, established in statutes or local ordinances, in which the penalty was paid to the state or

municipal treasury, or divided between the aerarium and the accuser, as, e.g., provided in a decree

of  the  Senate  in  the  case  of  damage  to  aqueducts.”  Adolf  Berger,  Encyclopedic  Dictionary  of

Roman Law 347 (1953).

actio praejudicialis (ak-shee-oh pree-joo-dish-ee-ay-lis).Roman law. A preliminary action; an

action  begun  to  determine  a  preliminary  matter  on  which  other  litigated  matters  depend.  Pl.

actiones praejudiciales.

actio  praetoria  (ak-shee-oh  pri-tor-ee-<<schwa>>).Roman  law.  A  praetorian  action;  one

introduced by a praetor rather than founded on a statute. Pl. actiones praetoriae (ak-shee-oh-neez


actio pro socio (ak-shee-oh proh soh-shee-oh).Roman law. An action brought by one partner

against another. Pl. actiones pro socio.See SOCIETAS.

actio  Publiciana  (ak-shee-oh  p<<schwa>>-blish-ee-ay-n<<schwa>>).Roman  law.  An  action

allowing a person who had acquired bonitary ownership of land to recover it from a third party, so

that the  person would in  due course acquire full title by  prescription. • This action is named  for

Publicius,  who  might  have  been  the  first  praetor  to  grant  the  action.  —  Also  termed  actio

Publiciana in rem. See bonitary ownership under OWNERSHIP.

actio  quanti  minoris  (ak-shee-oh  kwon-tI  mi-nor-is).  [Latin  “an  action  for  the  shortfall  in

value”]  Roman  & civil  law.  A  purchaser’s  action  to  recover  for  his  overpayment for  a  defective

item. Pl. actiones quanti minoris.Cf. actio redhibitoria.

“If a defect appeared which had not been so declared the buyer, if he sued within six months, A



could  claim res-cission  of the sale by the actio redhibitoria, and, if  within twelve  months, could

claim the difference between the price paid and the actual value of the defective slave or animal by

the actio quanti minoris. In both actions the knowledge or ignorance of the seller was irrelevant:

liability was strict.” Barry Nicholas, An Introduction to Roman Law 181 (1962).

actio  quod  jussu  (ak-shee-oh  kwod  j<<schwa>>s-[y]oo).Roman  law.  An  action  against  a

paterfamilias or a slaveowner for enforcement of a debt contracted on behalf of the paterfamilias

or slaveowner by a son or a slave.

actio quod metus causa (ak-shee-oh kwod mee-t<<schwa>>s kaw-z<<schwa>>).Roman law.

An action to pe-nalize someone who wrongfully compelled the plaintiff to transfer property or to

assume  an  obligation.  •  The  plaintiff  could  obtain  damages  of  four  times  the  value  of  the  loss

suffered. Pl. actiones quod metus causa.

actio realis (ak-shee-oh ree-ay-lis). [Law Latin] Hist. A real action. Pl. actiones reales.

actio redhibitoria (ak-shee-oh red-i-bi-tor-ee-<<schwa>>).Roman & civil law. An action for

restoration to cancel a sale because of defects in the thing sold. Pl. actiones redhibitoriae.Cf. actio

quanti minoris.

actio  rei  persecutoria  (ak-shee-oh  ree-I  p<<schwa>>r-si-kyoo-tor-ee-<<  schwa>>).  [Law

Latin  “an  action  for  pursuing  a  thing”]  Roman  law.  An  action  to  recover  a  specific  thing  or

monetary compensation, rather than a penalty. Pl. actiones rei persecutoriae (ak-shee-oh-neez ree-I

p<<schwa>>r-si-kyoo-tor-ee-I). Cf. actio poenalis.

actio  rerum  amotarum  (ak-shee-oh  reer-<<schwa>>m

am-<<schwa>>-tair-<<schwa>>m).Roman  law.  An  action  to  recover  items  stolen  by  a  spouse

shortly before a divorce. Pl. actiones rerum amotarum.

actio rescissoria (ak-shee-oh re-si-sor-ee-<<schwa>>).Roman law. An action to restore to the

plaintiff  property  lost  by  prescription.  •  This  action  was  available  to  minors  and  other  persons

exempt from prescriptive claims against their property. Pl. actiones rescissoriae.

actio  serviana  (ak-shee-oh  s<<schwa>>r-vee-ay-n<<schwa>>).Roman  law.  An  action  by

which  a  lessor  could  seize, in  satisfaction  of  unpaid  rent, the  lessee’s  personal  property  brought

onto the leased premises. Pl. actiones servianae.

actio  servi  corrupti  (ak-shee-oh  s<<schwa>>r-vI  k<<schwa>>-r<<schwa>>p-tI).  [Latin]

Roman law.  An action  for corrupting a slave or servant. • Since the “corruption” could take  the

form of bribery to find out the master’s confidential business information, one scholar suggested in

a  famous  article  that  it  could  be  the  precursor  of  the  modern  law  of  trade  secrets.  A.  Arthur

Schiller,  Trade  Secrets  and  the  Roman  Law:  The  Actio  Servi  Corrupti,  30  Colum.  L.  Rev.  837

(1930). Other scholars strongly disagree (see quotation).

“The  actio  servi corrupti  presumably  or  possibly  could  be  used  to  protect trade  secrets and

other  similar  com-mercial  interests.  That  was  not  its  purpose  and  was,  at  most,  an  incidental

spin-off. But there is not the slightest evidence that the  action  was ever so  used.”  Alan Watson,

Trade Secrets and Roman Law: The Myth Exploded, 11 Tul. Eur. & Civ. L.F. 19, 19 (1996).  actio  stricti  juris  (ak-shee-oh  strik-tIjoor-is).Roman  law.  A  class  of  personal  actions

enforceable exactly as stated in the formula without taking equitable considerations into account;

an action of strict right. • This type of action was often used to recover a definite sum of money or

a particular  object that was the subject  of a formal promise (stipulatio). Pl. actiones stricti juris.


actio  temporalis  (ak-shee-oh  tem-p<<schwa>>-ray-lis).Roman  &  civil  law.  An  action  that

must be brought within a specified time. Pl. actiones temporales.Cf. actio perpetua.

actio tutelae (ak-shee-oh t[y]oo-tee-lee).Roman law.  An  action arising  from a breach  of the

duty owed by a guardian (tutor) to the ward, such as  mismanagement of the ward’s property. Pl.

actiones tutelae.

actio  utilis  (ak-shee-oh  yoo-t<<schwa>>-lis).Roman  law.  An  extension  of  a  direct  action,

founded on utility rather than strict right, available esp. to persons having an interest in property

less than ownership. • This type of action was modeled after the actio directa. Pl. actiones utiles.Cf.

actio directa; actio in factum.

actio venditi (ak-shee-oh ven-d<<schwa>>-tI).Roman law. An action by which a seller could

obtain his price or enforce a contract of sale. — Also termed actio ex vendito. Pl. actiones venditi.

actio   vi   bonorum   raptorum   (ak-shee-oh   vI   b<<schwa>>-nor-<<schwa>>m   rap-tor-<<

schwa>>m).Roman law. A  penal action to recover  goods taken by force.  • A successful plaintiff

would  also  receive  three  times  the  value of  the  taken  property.  Cf.  INTERDICTUM QUOD  VI [Blacks Law 8th]