action.  1.  The  process  of  doing  something;  conduct  or  behavior.  2.  A  thing  done;

ACT(2).3.Patents. OFFICE ACTION.

advisory action.Patents. See advisory office action under OFFICE ACTION.

4. A civil or criminal judicial proceeding. — Also termed action at law. [Cases: Action    1.

C.J.S.  Actions  §§  2–9,  11,  17,  21,  32–33,  36.]“An  action  has  been  defined  to  be  an  ordinary

proceeding in a court of justice, by which one party prosecutes another party for the enforcement

or protection of a right, the redress or prevention of a wrong, or the punishment of a public offense.

But in some sense this definition is equally applicable to special proceedings. More accurately, it

is defined to be any judicial  proceeding,  which,  if  conducted to a  determination,  will result in a

judgment  or  decree.  The  action  is  said  to  terminate  at  judgment.”  1  Morris  M.  Estee,  Estee’s

Pleadings, Practice, and Forms§ 3, at 1 (Carter P. Pomeroy ed., 3d ed. 1885).

“The terms ‘action’ and ‘suit’ are nearly if not quite synonymous. But lawyers usually speak

of  proceedings in  courts  of  law  as  ‘actions,’  and  of  those  in  courts  of  equity  as  ‘suits.’  In  olden

time  there  was  a  more  marked  distinction,  for  an  action  was  considered  as  terminating  when

judgment was rendered, the execution forming no part of it. A suit, on the other hand, included the

execution. The word ‘suit,’ as used in the Judiciary Act of 1784 and later Federal statutes, applies

to  any  proceeding  in  a  court  of  justice  in  which  the  plaintiff  pursues  in  such  court  the  remedy

which  the  law  affords  him.”  Edwin  E.  Bryant,  The  Law  of  Pleading  Under  the  Codes  of  Civil

Procedure 3 (2d ed. 1899).

“ ‘Action,’ in the sense of a judicial proceeding, includes recoupment, counterclaim, set-off,

suit in equity, and any other proceeding in which rights are determined.” UCC § 1-201(b)(1).

action at law.A civil suit stating a legal cause of action and seeking only a legal remedy. See

suit at law and suit in equity under SUIT.

action de die in diem (dee dI-ee in dI-em). [Law Latin “from day to day”] Hist. 1.An action

occurring from day to day; a continuing right of action. 2. An action for trespass for each day that

an injury continues.

“That trespass by way of personal entry is a continuing injury, lasting as long as the personal

presence  of  the  wrongdoer,  and  giving  rise  to  actions  de  die  in  diem  so  long  as  it  lasts,  is

sufficiently obvious.” R.F.V. Heuston, Salmond on the Law of Torts 42 (17th ed. 1977).

action  de in rem  verso (dee in rem  v<<schwa>>r-soh). [Latin “action for  money applied  to

(the defendant’s) advantage”] 1.Roman & civil law. An action for unjust enrichment, in which the

plaintiff   must   show   that   an   enrichment   was   bestowed,   that   the   enrichment   caused   an

impoverishment, that there is no justification for the enrichment and impoverishment, and that the

plaintiff  has no  other adequate remedy at law, including  no remedy  under an  express or implied

contract. 2.Roman law. An action brought against a paterfamilias or a slaveowner who benefited

from the transaction of a child or slave. — Also termed (in both senses) actio de in rem verso.

action en declaration de simulation.Louisiana law. An action to void a contract. See simulated

contract under CONTRACT.

action  ex  contractu  (eks  k<<schwa>>n-trak-t[y]oo).  A  personal  action  arising  out  of  a

contract. [Cases: Action    27. C.J.S. Actions § 85.]

“Actions ex  contractu  were somewhat  illogically  classified  thus: covenant, debt, assumpsit,

detinue, and account. The action of covenant lay where the party claimed damages for a breach of

contract or promise under seal. The writ of debt lay for the recovery of a debt; that is, a liquidated

or certain sum of money alleged to be due from defendant to plaintiff. The writ of detinue was the

ancient  remedy  where  the  plaintiff  claimed  the  specific  recovery  of  goods,  chattels,  deeds,  or

writings detained from him. This remedy fell into disuse by reason of the unsatisfactory mode of

trial  of  ‘wager of  law,’  which  the  defendant  could  claim; and  recourse  was  had  to  the  action  of

replevin.  In the American  States an action  of replevin founded  upon statute  provisions is almost

universally the remedy for the recovery of specific personal property.” Edwin E. Bryant, The Law

of Pleading Under the Codes of Civil Procedure 5 (2d ed. 1899).

action  ex  delicto (eks  d<<schwa>>-lik-toh).  A personal  action arising  out of a tort. [Cases:

Action    27. C.J.S. Actions § 85.]

“The  actions  ex  delicto  were  originally  the  action  of  trespass  and  the  action  of  replevin.”

Edwin E. Bryant, The Law of Pleading Under the Codes of Civil Procedure 5 (2d ed. 1899).

action  for  money  had  and  received.At  common  law,  an  action  by  which  the  plaintiff  could

recover  money  paid  to  the  defendant,  the  money  usu.  being  recoverable  because  (1)  the  money

had been paid by mistake or under compulsion, or (2) the consideration was insufficient. [Cases:

Implied  and  Constructive  Contracts    10–25.  C.J.S.  Implied  and  Constructive  Contracts  §§


“The action for money had and received lay to recover money which the plaintiff had paid to

the  defendant,  on  the  ground  that  it  had  been  paid  under  a  mistake  or  compulsion,  or  for  a

consideration  which  had  wholly  failed.  By  this  action  the  plaintiff  could  also  recover  money

which the defendant had received from a third party, as when he was accountable or had attorned

to the plaintiff in respect of the money, or the money formed part of the fruits of an office of the

plaintiff which the defendant had usurped.” Robert Goff & Gareth Jones, The Law of Restitution 3

(3d ed. 1986).

action for money paid.At common law, an action by which the plaintiff could recover money

paid  to  a  third  party  —  not  to  the  defendant  —  in  circumstances  in  which  the  defendant  had

benefited.  [Cases:  Implied  and  Con-structive  Contracts    6.  C.J.S.  Implied  and  Constructive

Contracts § 8.]

“The  action  for  money  paid  was  the  appropriate  action  when  the  plaintiff’s  claim  was  in

respect of  money  paid,  not to  the  defendant, but to  a  third  party,  from  which  the  defendant had

derived  a  benefit.  Historically,  the  plaintiff  had  to  show  that  the  payment  was  made  at  the

defendant’s request; but we shall see that the law was prepared to ‘imply’ such a request on certain

occasions,  in  particular  where  the  payment  was  made  under  compulsion  of  law  or,  in  limited

circumstances, in the course of intervention in an emergency on the defendant’s behalf, which in

this  book  we  shall  call  necessitous  intervention.”  Robert  Goff  &  Gareth  Jones,  The  Law  of

Restitution 3 (3d ed. 1986).

action  for  poinding.Hist.  A  creditor’s  action  to  obtain  sequestration  of  the  land  rents  and

goods of the debtor to satisfy the debt or enforce a distress.

action  for  the  loss  of  services.Hist.  A  husband’s  lawsuit  against  one  who  has  taken  away,

imprisoned, or physically harmed his wife in circumstances in which (1) the act is wrongful to the

wife,  and  (2)  the  husband  is  deprived  of  her  society  or  services.  [Cases:  Husband  and  Wife


action for the recovery of land.See EJECTMENT.

action  in  equity.An  action  that  seeks  equitable  relief,  such  as  an  injunction  or  specific

performance, as opposed to  damages. See suit in equity  under SUIT. [Cases:  Action    21. C.J.S.

Actions § 124.]

action  in  personam  (in  p<<schwa>>r-soh-n<<schwa>>m).1.  An  action  brought  against  a

person rather than property. • An in personam judgment is binding on the judgment debtor and can

be  enforced  against  all  the  property  of  the  judgment  debtor.  2.  An  action  in  which  the  named

defendant is a natural or legal person. — Also termed personal action; (in Roman and civil law)

actio  in  personam;  actio  personalis.  Pl.  actiones  in  personam;  actiones  personales.See  IN

PERSONAM. [Cases: Action    16. C.J.S. Actions §§ 10–12, 66, 69, 71–72, 74–77.]

action  in  rem  (in  rem).1.  An  action  determining  the  title  to  property  and  the  rights  of  the

parties, not merely among themselves, but also against all persons at any time claiming an interest

in that property; a real action. [Cases: Action    16. C.J.S. Actions §§ 10–12, 66, 69, 71–72, 74–77.]

2.Louisiana law. An action brought for the protection of possession, ownership, or other real rights

in immovable property.La. Civ. Code arts. 3651 et seq. 3.Louisiana law. An action for the recovery

of possession of immovable property. La. Civ. Code art. 526. — Also termed (in Roman law) actio

in rem; actio realis; real action. Pl. actiones in rem.See IN REM. 4. An action in which the named

defendant is real or personal property.

action of account.See ACCOUNTING(3).

action  of  assize.Hist.  A  real  action  by  which  the  plaintiff  proves  title  to  land  merely  by

showing an ancestor’s possession. See ASSIZE.

action of book debt.See ACCOUNTING(4).

action of declarator.Scots law. An action brought in the  Court of Session for the purpose of

establishing a legal status or right. — Also termed declarator; action for declaratory.

action of ejectment.See EJECTMENT(3).

action of reprobator.See REPROBATOR.

action on account.See ACCOUNTING(4).

action on expenditure.An action for payment of the principal debt by a personal surety.

action on the case.See trespass on the case under TRESPASS.

action  per  quod  servitium  amisit (p<<schwa>>r  kwod  s<<schwa>>r-vish-ee-<<  schwa>>m

<<schwa>>-mI-sit). [Latin] Hist. An action for the loss of a servant’s services.

action  quasi  in  rem  (kway-sI  in  remorkway-zI).  An  action  brought  against  the  defendant

personally, with ju-risdiction based on an interest in property, the objective being to deal with the

particular property or to subject the property to the discharge of the claims asserted. See quasi in

rem under IN REM. [Cases: Action    16. C.J.S. Actions §§ 10–12, 66, 69, 71–72, 74–77.]

action  to  quiet  title.A  proceeding  to  establish  a  plaintiff’s  title  to  land  by  compelling  the

adverse  claimant  to  establish  a  claim  or  be  forever  estopped  from  asserting  it.  —  Also  termed

quiet-title action. [Cases: Quieting Title    1. C.J.S. Quieting Title §§ 1, 3, 6.]

action  to  review  judgment.Rare.  1.MOTION  FOR  NEW  TRIAL.  2.  A  request  for  judicial

review    of    a    nonjudicial    body’s    decision,    such    as    an    administrative    ruling    on    a

workers’-compensation  claim.  • The  grounds for review  are usu. similar to those for a new trial, A

esp. patent errors of law and new evidence.

amicable action.See test case (1) under CASE.

civil  action.An  action  brought  to  enforce,  redress,  or  protect  a  private  or  civil  right;  a

noncriminal litigation. — Also termed (if brought by a private person) private action; (if brought

by a government) public action. [Cases: Action    1. C.J.S. Actions §§ 2–9, 11, 17, 21, 32–33, 36.]

“The code of New York, as originally adopted, declared, ‘the distinctions between actions at

law and suits in  equity, and the  forms of all such actions and  heretofore existing, are abolished;

and there shall be in this State hereafter but one form of action for the enforcement or protection

of  private  rights  and  the  redress  of  private  wrongs,  which  shall  be  denominated  a  civil  action.’

With  slight  verbal  changes  the  above  provision  has  been  enacted  in  most  of  the  States  and

Territories which have adopted the reformed procedure.” Edwin E. Bryant, The Law of Pleading

Under the Codes of Civil Procedure 106 (2d ed. 1899).

class action.See CLASS ACTION.

collusive action.An action between two parties who have no actual controversy, being merely

for the purpose of determining a legal question or receiving a precedent that might prove favorable

in related litigation. — Also termed fictional action. [Cases: Action    8. C.J.S. Actions §§ 34–35,


common-law action.An action governed by common law, rather than statutory, equitable, or

civil law. [Cases: Action    21. C.J.S. Actions § 124.]

criminal action.An action instituted by the government to punish offenses against the public.

[Cases: Action    18. C.J.S. Actions § 68.]

cross-action.  An  action  brought  by  the  defendant  against  the  plaintiff  based  on  the  same

subject matter as the plaintiff’s action. See CROSS-CLAIM.

derivative action.See DERIVATIVE ACTION.

direct action.See DIRECT ACTION.

fictional action.See collusive action.

fictitious action.An  action,  usu.  unethical,  brought solely  to  obtain  a  judicial  opinion  on  an

issue  of  fact  or  law,  rather  than  for  the  disposition  of  a  controversy.  [Cases:  Action    8.  C.J.S.

Actions §§ 34–35, 37.]

hypothecary  action  (hI-poth-<<schwa>>-ker-ee).Roman  &  civil  law.  An  action  for  the

enforcement of a mortgage (hypotheca); a lawsuit to enforce a creditor’s claims under a hypothec

or hypothecation. — Also termed actio hypothecaria.

innominate action (i-nom-i-n<<schwa>>t). An action that has no special name by which it is

known. Cf. nominate action.

joint action. 1. An action brought by two or more plaintiffs. 2. An action brought against two A

or more defendants. [Cases: Action    50(4.1).]

local action.An action that can be brought only in the jurisdiction where the cause of action

arose,  as  when  the  action’s  subject  matter  is  a  piece  of  real  property.  [Cases:  Courts    7.  C.J.S.

Courts §§ 20–22, 37.]

matrimonial  action.An  action  relating  to  the  state  of  marriage,  such  as  an  action  for

separation,  annulment,  or  divorce.  [Cases:  Divorce    1;  Marriage    57.  C.J.S.  Divorce  §§  2,  5,

97–98; Marriage § 64.]

mixed  action.An  action  that  has  some  characteristics  of  both  a  real  action  and  a  personal

action. [Cases: Action    30. C.J.S. Actions §§ 78–83.]

“In early times the only mixed actions were those for the partition of lands, for which a writ

was  provided  in  the  common-law  courts.  The  remedy  was further  enlarged  by  the  statute  of  31

Hen. VII c. 1, and 32 Hen. VIII c. 32, which gave compulsory partition, by writ at common law.

These statutes formed the basis of partition in the American States; but in England and here courts

of  Chancery  have  been  found  most  convenient,  and  their  pro-cedure  most  favorable  for  the

division  of  estates  in  land.  The  statutes  at  the  present  time,  in  most  of  the  States,  prescribe  a

procedure which is quite similar to that in equity practice.” Edwin E. Bryant, The Law of Pleading

Under the Codes of Civil Procedure 10–11 (2d ed. 1899).

nominate  action  (nom-i-n<<schwa>>t).  An  action  that  is  known  by  a  name,  such  as  a

confessory action, a petitory action, or a possessory action. Cf. innominate action.

nonpersonal  action.An  action  that  proceeds  within  some  category  of  territorial  jurisdiction

other than in personam — that is, jurisdiction in rem, quasi in rem, or over status.

penal action. 1. A criminal prosecution. [Cases: Action    18. C.J.S. Actions § 68.] 2. A civil

proceeding  in  which  either  the  state  or  a  common  informer  sues  to  recover  a  penalty  from  a

defendant  who  has  violated  a  statute.  •  Although  civil  in  nature,  a  penal  action  resembles  a

criminal proceeding because the result of a successful action is a monetary penalty intended, like a

fine, to punish the defendant. See COMMON INFORMER. [Cases: Action    19. C.J.S. Actions §


“At one time it was a frequent practice, when it was desired to repress some type of conduct

thought to be harmful, to do so by the machinery of the civil rather than of the criminal law. The

means so chosen was called a penal action, as being brought for the recovery of a penalty; and it

might  be  brought,  according  to  the  wording  of  the  particular  statute  creating  the  penal  action,

either  by  the  Attorney-General  on  behalf  of  the  state,  or  by  a  common  informer  on  his  own

account. A common informer was anyone who should first sue the offender for the penalty. Penal

actions  are  still  possible  in  a  few  cases,  and  their  existence  renders  invalid  several  suggested

distinctions  between  civil  wrongs  and  crimes.”  John  Salmond,  Jurisprudence  107  (Glanville  L.

Williams ed., 10th ed. 1947).

“For  in  ‘penal  actions,’  unless  the  statute  expressly  authorizes  private  persons  to  act  as

informers,  the  State  alone  can  sue  and  recover  the  penalty;  and  yet  there  is  full  authority  for A

ranking  such  suits  by  it  as  merely  civil  pro-ceedings.”  J.W.  Cecil  Turner,  Kenny’s  Outlines  of

Criminal Law 538 (16th ed. 1952).

3. A civil lawsuit by an aggrieved party seeking recovery of a statutory fine or a penalty, such

as punitive damages. [Cases: Action    19. C.J.S. Actions § 70.]

“[T]here exists a well-known class of proceedings called ‘penal actions,’ by which pecuniary

penalties  can  be  recovered  —  in  some  cases by  any  person  who  will sue  for  them  —  from  the

doers of various prohibited acts; these acts being thus prohibited, and visited with penalties, solely

on account of their tendency to cause evil to the community at large, ‘considered as a community.’

For example, a person who, in advertising a reward for the return  of lost property, adds that ‘no

questions will be asked’ incurs by the Larceny Act, 1861, a penalty of £50 recoverable by anyone

who will sue for it.” J.W. Cecil Turner, Kenny’s Outlines of Criminal Law 533–34 (16th ed. 1952).

personal action. 1. An action brought for the recovery of debts, personal property, or damages

arising  from  any  cause.  —  Also  termed  remedial  action.  [Cases:  Action    30.  C.J.S. Actions §§


“Personal actions are subdivided into those brought for the recovery of a debt or of damages

for  the  breach  of  a  contract, or  for  tort,  for  some  injury  to  the  person  or  to  relative  rights  or  to

personal  or  real  property.  The  most  common  of  these  actions  are  debt,  covenant,  assumpsit,

detinue, trespass, trespass on the case, trover, and replevin.” Benjamin J. Shipman, Handbook of

Common-Law Pleading § 34, at 65 (Henry Winthrop Ballantine ed., 3d ed. 1923).

2. See action in personam.

petitory  action  (pet-<<schwa>>-tor-ee).1.Roman  &  civil  law.  An  action  to  establish  and

enforce  title  to  property  independently  of  the  right to  possession.  2.Civil  law.  An  action  for  the

recognition of ownership or other real right in immovable (or sometimes movable) property. • In

civil-law systems, the petitory action (revendication) is a much broader and more effective remedy

than  the  rei-vindicatio,  the  Roman  prototype.  This action  is based  on,  and  tends to  protect,  real

rights,  that  is,  ownership  and  its  dismemberments.  It  is  therefore  a  real  action,  distin-guishable

from  personal  actions  based  on  (and  tending  to  protect)  personal  rights.  Generally,  the  petitory

action  is  available  for  the  protection  of  the  ownership  of  both  movables  and  immovables.  In

Louisiana,  however, the  petitory action  is for  the recognition of  ownership  or  other real right in

immovable property, brought by a person who is not in possession of it. La. Code Civ. Proc. art.

3651.  An  action  for  the  recognition  of  such  a  right  in  movable  property  is  an  innominate  real

action, known as a revendicatory action. — Also termed petitory suit; petitorium; revendication.

[Cases: Real Actions    6.]

plenary  action  (plee-n<<schwa>>-ree  orplen-).  A  full  hearing  or  trial  on  the  merits,  as

opposed to a summary proceeding. Cf. summary proceeding under PROCEEDING.

possessory  action  (p<<schwa>>-zes-<<schwa>>-ree).1.  An  action  to  obtain,  recover,  or

maintain possession of property but not title to it, such as an action to evict a nonpaying tenant. —

Also termed possessorium. [Cases: Ejectment    17; Replevin    1. C.J.S. Ejectment § 24; Replevin

§§ 2–7.]

“The  possessory  action  is  available  for  the  protection  of  the  possession  of  corporeal

immovables  as  well  as  for  the  protection  of  the  quasi-possession  or  real  rights  in  immovable

property.  It  is  distinguished  from  the  petitory  action  which  is  available  for  the  recognition  and

enforcement  of  ownership  or  of  real  rights  in  another’s  immovable,  such  as  a  usufruct,  limited

personal servitudes, and predial servitudes.” A.N. Yiannopoulos, Civil Law Property § 333, at 653

(4th ed. 2001).

2.Maritime  law.  An  action  brought  to  recover  possession  of  a  ship  under  a  claim  of  title.

[Cases: Admiralty    8. C.J.S. Admiralty §§ 59–61.]

private action.See civil action.

public action.See civil action.

real action. 1.  An action brought for the recovery  of land  or other real property; specif., an

action  to  recover  the  possession  of  a  freehold  estate  in  real  property,  or  seisin.  2.Civil  law.  An

action  based  on,  and  tending  to  protect,  a  real  right,  namely,  the  right  of  ownership  and  its

dismemberments. • It is distinguishable from a  personal  action,  which  is based  on (and tends to

protect)  a  personal  right.  3.Louisiana  law.  An  action  brought  for  the  protection  of  possession,

ownership,  or  other  real  rights in  immovable  property.La.  Code  Civ.  Proc.  arts. 3651  et seq.  —

Also termed action in rem; actio in rem; actio realis. See SEISIN. [Cases: Real Actions    1–6.]

“If the question be asked why it was that a large part of the really English law which Bracton

undertook to expound is found in connection with the subject of real actions, while in Blackstone’s

treatise  only  the  personal  actions  are  deemed  worthy  of  attention,  the  answer  must  be  that  the

former were dying out. When Chitty  wrote (1808) the old real actions were practically  obsolete,

and in the succeeding generation such  vestiges of them  as remained  were abolished by statute.”

Hannis Taylor, The Science of Jurisprudence 574 (1908).

“The principal real actions formerly in use were (1) the writs of right; (2) the writs of entry;

(3) the possessory assizes, such as novel disseisin and  mort  d’ancestor. Real actions are those in

which the demandant seeks to recover seisin from one called a tenant, because he holds the land.

They  are  real  actions  at  common  law  because  the  judgment  is  in  rem  and  awards  the  seisin  or

possession.”  Benjamin  J.  Shipman,  Handbook  of  Common-Law  Pleading  §  32,  at  63  (Henry

Winthrop Ballantine ed., 3d ed. 1923).

redhibitory action.Civil law. An action brought to void a sale of a thing having a defect that

renders it either useless or so flawed that the buyer would not have bought it in the first place. See

REDHIBITION. [Cases: Sales    113; Vendor and Purchaser    123. C.J.S. Sales §§ 123, 128–129,

199; Vendor and Purchaser §§ 300–305.]

remedial action.1.REMEDIAL ACTION. 2. See personal action (1).

representative action.1.CLASS ACTION; 2.DERIVATIVE ACTION(1).

rescissory action.Scots law. An action to set aside a deed.

revendicatory action (ree-ven-di-k<<schwa>>-tor-ee). See petitory action.

separate  action.  1.  An  action  brought  alone  by  each  of  several  complainants  who  are  all

involved  in  the  same  transaction  but  either  cannot legally  join  the  suit  or,  not being  required  to

join, choose  not to join it. 2. One  of several distinct actions brought by a single  plaintiff against

each of two or more parties who are all liable to a plaintiff with respect to the same subject matter.

— Also termed several action.

several action.See separate action.

sham  action.An  objectively  baseless  lawsuit  the  primary  purpose  of  which  is  to  hinder  or

interfere with a com-petitor’s business relationships. See Professional Real Estate Investors, Inc. v.

Columbia Pictures Indus., Inc., 508 U.S. 49, 113 S.Ct. 1920 (1993). — Also termed sham lawsuit;

sham suit. See SHAM EXCEPTION.

statutory action.An action governed by statutory law rather than equitable, civil, or common

law. [Cases: Action    3. C.J.S. Actions §§ 22–25, 28.]

test action.See test case (2) under CASE.

third-party action.An action brought as part of a lawsuit already pending but distinct from the

main claim, whereby a defendant sues an entity not sued by the plaintiff when that entity may be

liable to the defendant for all or part of the plaintiff’s claim. • A common example is an action for

indemnity or contribution. [Cases: Parties    50. C.J.S. Parties §§ 128–131, 142, 151.]

transitory  action.An  action  that  can  be  brought  in  any  venue  where  the  defendant  can  be

personally served with process. [Cases: Venue    4. C.J.S. Venue §§ 8–9.]

“Transitory  actions  are  universally  founded  on  the  supposed  violation  of  rights  which,  in

contemplation of law, have no locality. They are personal actions, that is, they are brought for the

enforcement  of  purely  personal  rights  or  obligations.  If  the  transaction  on  which  the  action  is

founded could have taken place anywhere, the action is generally regarded as transitory; but if the

transaction could only have happened in a particular place … the action is local. Some authorities,

considering  the  effect  of  the  distinction,  define transitory  actions as  actions  which  may  be  tried

wherever defendant may be found and served.” 92 C.J.S. Venue § 8, at 678–79 (1955).

Action.  A  former  independent  federal  agency  that  administered  various  volunteer-services

programs   including   Foster   Grandparents,   Retired   Senior   Volunteers,   Senior   Companions,

Volunteers in Service to America, and Student Community Service Projects. • Its functions were

transferred to the Corporation for National and Community Service in 1995. See CORPORATION[Blacks Law 8th]