actio  arbitraria  (ak-shee-oh  ahr-bi-trair-ee-<<schwa>>).Roman  law.  An  action  in  which  a

judex  issued  an  in-terlocutory  decree  ordering  the  defendant to  do  something  (such  as  restoring

property to the plaintiff) on pain of a monetary judgment payable to the plaintiff. • This action was

so  called  because  the  judex  could  assess  the  damage  at  a  high  figure  if  the  defendant  failed  to

comply with the interlocutory order. Pl. actiones arbitrariae (ak-shee-oh-neez ahr-bi-trair-ee-I).

actio  auctoritas  (ak-shee-oh  awk-tor-i-tas).Roman  law.  A  seller’s  guarantee  against  eviction

from mancipated land coupled with a promise to pay twice the sale price as damages if the buyer

is evicted. • The guarantee was implicit in the mancipation process. See MANCIPATION.

actio bonae fidei (ak-shee-oh boh-nee fI-dee-I).Roman law. One of a class of actions in which

a judge could take equitable considerations into account in rendering a decision. Pl. actiones bonae

actio  calumniae  (ak-shee-oh  k<<schwa>>-l<<schwa>>m-nee-ee).Roman  law.  An  action  to

restrain,  or  collect  damages  for,  a  malicious  civil  suit.  •  The  victim  could  also  pursue  criminal

charges. Pl. actiones calumniae.See CALUMNIA.

actio civilis (ak-shee-oh s<<schwa>>-vI-lis). [Latin “a civil action”] Roman law. An action

founded  on  the  tra-ditional  Roman  law,  rather  than  the  innovations  of  magistrates.  Pl.  actiones

civiles.Cf. actio honoraria.

actio commodati (ak-shee-oh kom-<<schwa>>-day-tI). [Latin “action on loan”] Roman law.

An  action  for  the  recovery  of  a  thing  gratuitously  lent  but  not  returned  to  the  lender.  —  Also

termed commodati actio. Pl. actiones commodati.See COMMODATUM.


actio  commodati  contraria  (ak-shee-oh  kom-<<schwa>>-day-tI

k<<schwa>>n-trair-ee-<<schwa>>).Roman  law.  An  action  by  a  gratuitous  borrower  against  a

lender  for  extraordinary  expenses  or  damage  caused  by  the  lender’s  default.  Pl.  actiones

commodati contrariae.

actio  commodati  directa  (ak-shee-oh  kom-<<schwa>>-day-tI  di-rek-t<<schwa>>).Roman

law.  An  action  by  a  lender  against  a  borrower  for  restitution  for  an  item  gratuitously  lent.  Pl.

actiones commodati directae.

actio  condictio  indebiti  (ak-shee-oh  k<<schwa>>n-dik-shee-oh  in-deb-<<  schwa>>-tI).  See

condictio  indebiti  under  CONDICTIO.  •  Strictly  speaking,  the  headword  is  a  solecism,  since  a

condictio  is a  type  of  actio,  but this  phrase  is occasionally  found  in  legal  literature. Pl.  actiones

condictio indebiti.

actio  conducti  (ak-shee-oh  k<<schwa>>n-d<<schwa>>k-tI).  [Latin  “action  for  the  thing

hired”] An action by the lessee of a thing or the hirer of another’s services to enforce the contract

or claim damages for breach. — Also termed actio ex conducto. Cf. actio locati.

actio confessoria (ak-shee-oh  kon-f<<schwa>>-sor-ee-<<schwa>>). [Latin “action based on

an  admission”]  1.  See  vindicatio  servitutis  under  VINDICATIO.  2.  An  action  in  which  the

defendant admits liability but does not express it in a fixed sum. • A judge therefore assesses the

actio contraria (ak-shee-oh  k<<schwa>>n-trair-ee-<<schwa>>).Roman law. A counterclaim.

Pl. actio contra-ria.Cf. actio directa.

actio  criminalis  (ak-shee-oh  kri-m<<schwa>>-nay-lis).Roman  law.  A  criminal  action.  Pl.

actiones criminales.

actio  damni  injuria  (ak-shee-oh  dam-nI  in-joor-ee-<<schwa>>).Roman  law.  An  action  for

damages for tortiously causing pecuniary loss. Pl. actiones damni injuriae.See actio legis Aquiliae.

actio    de    communi    dividundo    (ak-shee-oh    dee    k<<schwa>>-myoo-nI    di-vi-d<<

schwa>>n-doh). [Latin “for dividing a thing held in common”] Roman & civil law. An action to

partition  common  property.  —  Sometimes  shortened  to  de  communi  dividundo.  Pl.  actiones  de

communi dividundo.See ADJUDICATIO.

actio  de  dolo  malo (ak-shee-oh  dee doh-loh  mal-oh).Roman law.  An action  of fraud. • This

type of action was widely applied in cases involving deceitful conduct. — Also termed actio doli.

Pl. actiones de dolo malo.

actio de in rem verso (ak-shee-oh dee in rem v<<schwa>>r-soh). See action de in rem verso

under ACTION(4). Pl. actiones de in rem verso.

actio  de  pauperie  (ak-shee-oh  dee  paw-p<<schwa>>r-ee).Roman  law.  An  action  for  harm

done by a domestic four-legged animal. • The owner could either pay for the damage or surrender

the  animal  to  the  injured  party.  Justinian  extended  this  action  to  include  wild  animals  in  some

circumstances. See PAUPERIES.

actio de peculio (ak-shee-oh dee p<<schwa>>-kyoo-lee-oh).Roman law. An action against a

paterfamilias  or  slave  owner  concerning  the  value  of  the  child’s  or  slave’s  separate  funds

(peculium). Pl. actiones de peculio.

actio  de  pecunia  constituta  (ak-shee-oh  dee

p<<schwa>>-kyoo-nee-<<schwa>>kon-sti-t[y]oo-t<<schwa>>).Roman   law.   An   action   on   a

promise to pay a preexisting debt. Pl. actiones de pecunia constituta.

actio  depositi  contraria  (ak-shee-oh  di-poz-<<schwa>>-tI

k<<schwa>>n-trair-ee-<<schwa>>).Roman  law.  An  action  that  a  depositary  has  against  the

depositor for unpaid expenses. Pl. actiones depositi contrariae.

actio  depositi directa (ak-shee-oh di-poz-<<schwa>>-tI di-rek-t<<schwa>>).Roman law. An

action that a de-positor has against a depositary for the return of the deposited item. Pl. actiones

depositi directae.

actio de tigno juncto (ak-shee-oh dee tig-noh j<<schwa>>ngk-toh). [Latin “action for joining

timber”] Roman law.  An action by the  owner of  material incorporated  without payment into the

defendant’s  building.  •  It  was  akin  to  a  theft  action.  The  plaintiff  could  recover  up  to  twice the

value of the material. Pl. actiones de tigno juncto.

actio directa (ak-shee-oh di-rek-t<<schwa>>).Roman law.1. An action founded on strict law

and conducted according to fixed forms; an action based on clearly defined obligations actionable

at law based on a statute or a praetor’s edict. 2. A direct action, as opposed to a counterclaim (actio

contraria). Cf. actio in factum; actio utilis. Pl. actiones directae.

actio doli (ak-shee-oh doh-lI). See actio de dolo malo.

actio  empti  (ak-shee-oh  emp-tI).Roman  law.  An  action  by  a  buyer  to  compel  a  seller  to

deliver  the  item  sold  or  for  damages for  breach  of  contract. —  Also  termed  actio  ex  empto.  Pl.

actiones empti.

actio ex conducto (ak-shee-oh eks k<<schwa>>n-d<<schwa>>k-toh). See actio conducti. Pl.

actiones ex con-ducto.

actio ex contractu (ak-shee-oh eks k<<schwa>>n-trak-t[y]oo).Roman law. An action arising

out of a contract. • This term had a similar meaning at common law. Pl. actiones ex contractu.

actio  ex  delicto  (ak-shee-oh  eks  d<<schwa>>-lik-toh).Roman  law.  An  action  founded  on  a

tort. Pl. actiones ex delicto.

actio ex empto (ak-shee-oh eks emp-toh). See actio empti.

actio  exercitoria  (ak-shee-oh  eg-z<<schwa>>r-si-tor-ee-<<schwa>>).Roman  law.  An  action

against  the  owner  or  lessee  (exercitor)  of  a  vessel,  esp.  for  contracts  made  by  the  master.  Pl.

actiones exercitoriae.

actio ex locato (ak-shee-oh eks loh-kay-toh). See actio locati.

actio  ex  stipulatu  (ak-shee-oh  eks  stip-y<<schwa>>-lay-t[y]oo).Roman  law.  An  action A

brought to enforce a stipulatio. See STIPULATION(3).

actio ex vendito (ak-shee-oh eks ven-d<<schwa>>-toh). See actio venditi.

actio  familiae  erciscundae  (ak-shee-oh  f<<schwa>>-mil-ee-ee

<<schwa>>r-sis-k<<schwa>>n-dee).  [Latin  “action  to  divide  an  estate”]  An  action  for  the

partition  of  the  inheritance  among  heirs.  —  Sometimes  shortened  to  familiae  erciscundae.  See [Blacks Law 8th]