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ACCESS

access,n.1.  An  opportunity  or  ability  to  enter,  approach,  pass  to  and  from,  or  communicate

with <access to the courts>.2.Family law. VISITATION(2).3.Family law. The opportunity to have

sexual intercourse. Cf. NON-ACCESS.

multiple  access.In  a  paternity  suit,  the  defense  that  the  mother  had  lovers  other  than  the

defendant around the time  of conception. • The basis for the  defense is that because the  mother

bears the burden of proof, she must be able to prove that only the defendant could be the child’s

father.  In  some  jurisdictions, this is still  known  by  its  common-law  name,  the  exceptio  plurium

concubentium defense, or as simply the plurium defense. Juries or judges who wished to dismiss

the  case  because  of  the  mother’s  promiscuity,  rather  than  because  of  the  improbability  of  the

defendant’s paternity, often accepted this defense. Most states have now abrogated the defense. In

fact, in recent years the issue of multiple access has declined in importance with the rise of highly

accurate paternity testing. [Cases: Children Out-of-Wedlock    50. C.J.S. Children Out-of-Wedlock

§§ 103, 106.]

4.Patents & trademarks. The right to obtain information about and to inspect and copy U.S.

Patent and Trademark Office files of patents, patent applications, trademark applications, and inter

partes   proceedings   pertaining   to   them.   5.Copyright.   An   opportunity   by   one   accused   of

infringement to see, hear, or copy a copyrighted work before the alleged infringement took place <

the duplication of the error proved that the defendant had access to the work>. • Proof of access is

required  to  prove  copyright  infringement  unless  the  two  works  are  strikingly  similar.  [Cases:

Copyrights  and  Intellectual  Property    83(3.1).]“Since  direct  evidence  of  copying  is  rarely

available,  a  plaintiff  can  rely  upon  circumstantial  evidence  to  prove  this  essential  element;  the

most  important  component  of  such  circumstantial  evidence  to  support  a  copyright  infringement

claim  is  proof  of  access.  Evidence  of  access  and  substantial  similarity  create  an  inference  of

copying  and  establish  a  prima  facie  case  of  copying.”  18  Am.  Jur.  2d  Copyright  and  Literary

Property § 206 (1985). A

6.Copyright. The right to  obtain information about and to inspect and copy  U.S. Copyright

Office files and deposited materials. See (for senses 3 & 4) POWER TO INSPECT. — access,vb. [Blacks Law 8th]